Bibliography for Liszt

Arnold, Ben, ed. The Liszt Companion. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002. (ML 410.L7 L565 2002.)

This is collection of essays on different parts of Liszt's life. The major divisions of the book include: Life, Writings, and Reception, The Young Liszt, Keyboard Music, Instrumental Music, and Vocal Music. The authors include: Klára Hamburger, Charles Suttoni, James Deaville, Michael Saffle, Ben Arnold, Marilyn Kielniarz, William Wright, Jay Rosenblatt, and Kristin Wendland. The chapter, "Franz Liszt: 1811-1886 by Klára Hamburger has proved useful in providing a broad overview of the different periods of his life.

Boise, Otis. "An American Composer Visits Liszt." The Musical Quarterly 43:3 (July, 1957), 316-325.

An eyewitness account by composer Otis Boise, who visited Liszt in 1876 in order to obtain the latter's criticism/advice on a recent orchestral composition. Includes entertaining anecdotes related to Liszt (and smoking cigars), as well as a touching character sketch.

Brendel, Alfred. Franz Liszt: Eine Lebenschronik in Bildern Und Dokument Germany: Paul List Verlag GmbH & Co., 1986.

This is a collection of documents and pictures of the life of Franz Liszt. While it is in German, the text is in small manageable segments making them very easy to translate. It has a short history of Anna Liszt as well as four pictures of her on page 11.

Celenza, Anna Harwell. “The Poet, the Pianist, and the Patron: Hans Christian Andersen and Franz Liszt in Carl Alexander's Weimar.” 19th-Century Music. Vol. 26, No. 2 (Fall 2002), pp. 130-154. Published by: University of California Press.

Deaville, James. "Writing Liszt: Lina Ramann, Marie Lipsius, and Early Musicology." Journal of Musicological Research 21 (2002): 73-97.

Recent disciplinary histories in musicology have ignored the contributions of women during the field's formative years, but women were active as musicologists in Germany in the late 19th c., as witnessed in the scholarly work of Lina Ramann and Ida Maria Lipsius (La Mara). Excluded from advanced musicological study of canonic topics, they independently turned their attention toward study of one of the most commanding and controversial figures of the time: Franz Liszt. His feminization by opponents made Ramann's and La Mara's studies doubly transgressive. It is no coincidence that both scholars, known in their day as having long-term same-sex partners, created a Liszt in harmony with their own subject positions.

Franz Liszt: Selected Letters. Ed. Adrian Williams. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

The Franz Liszt Companion, ed. Ben Arnold. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.

**Fay, Amy, and Fay Peirce. Music-study in Germany, from the home correspondence of Amy Fay. Philadelphia: Theo. Presser Co., 1896.

Gervers, Hilda. "Franz Liszt as Pedagogue."
Journal of Research in Music Education, 18:4 (Winter, 1970), 385-391.

An article which traces the development of Liszt's pedagogical technique from his teens through to the end of his life. Relies a great deal on the accounts of those who were present at Liszt's lessons, including for instance Borodin.

Hamburger, Klára. "Madame Liszt: The correspondence between Liszt and his mother." The Hungarian Quarterly 41:158 (Summer 2000), 151-157.

Provides a brief description of the nature of the letters between Franz and Anna. In short, the two had a very open and loving relationship: Anna often took care of Liszt children while he was away on tour, provided her son with emotional support, and frequently gave good advice (including urging him not to join the priesthood). Anna was also an eminently likeable individual, and was on good terms with most of the people in Liszt's life.

Keeling, Geraldine Field. "Liszt and Lina Schmaulsen" Journal of the American Liszt Society 5 (June 1979) 47-53.

Keiler, Allan. “Liszt and the Weimar Hoftheater.” Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. T. 28, Fasc. 1/4 (1986), pp. 431-450. Akadémiai Kiadó.

Liszt, Franz. Liszt Society Publications. Ed. Leslie Howard. Edinburgh: The Hardie Press, 1996.

Liszt, Franz, et al. Works for violin and piano complete. [Hungary]: Hungaroton, 2000.

Lloyd-Jones, David. "Borodin on Liszt." Music & Letters 42:2 (April, 1961), 117-126.

An eyewitness account of Liszt's life as translated by Lloyd-Jones. Borodin initially wrote down his observations in a series of letters, later expanding these into a number of essays. This particular excerpt focuses on the nature of Liszt's home, connections, personality, and of course musical activities (including teaching), in the 70s.

Locke, Ralph P. “Liszt’s Saint-Simonian Adventure.” 19th-Century Music, Vol. 4, 209-27. University of California Press, Spring 1981.

“Maestro Franz Liszt at Weimar [Teaching Guide].” Music Educators Journal. Vol. 47, No. 3 (Jan., 1961), pp. 72+74. MENC: The National Association for Music Education.

Merrick, Paul. "Liszt's sans ton Key Signature." Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae
T.45, Fasc. 3/4, 281-302. Akadémiai Kiadó, 2004.

Merrick, Paul. "The Rôle of Tonality in the Swiss Book of Années de Pèlerinage." Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae T.39, Fasc 2/4 (1998), 367-383.

In this article Merrick explores the revisions Liszt made to his 1842 Album d'un voyageur, turning it into Années de Pèlerinage in 1855. After presenting his theories on a few significant keys in the corpus of Liszt's music (Ab = love, E = religion, B = paradise), Merrick goes on to discuss changes in specific movements. Ultimately Merrick concludes that in revising and reworking his earlier suite, Liszt transformed what was a series of vignettes into a coherent tale of spritual development.

Neue Ausgabe Sämtlicher Werke. Ed. Imre Sulyok and Imre Mezo. Hungary: Editio Musica Budapest, 1985.

Ray, Brenda C.. Franz Liszt's Settings of Three Petrarch Sonnets. PhD diss., Louisiana State University, 1986.

The purpose of Ray's study is to examine the four versions of Liszt's Sonnets (the 1838-9 tenor songs, 1846 keyboard transcriptions, 1858 keyboard transcriptions, and 1861 baritone songs) from a historic and stylistic standpoint. In particular, Ray uses the songs to demonstrate how Liszt's compositional style morphed over time.

Saffle, Michael. Franz Liszt: A Guide to Research. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1991.

Satyendra, Ramon. "Conceptualising Expressive Chromaticism in Liszt's Music." Music Analysis 16:2 (July 1997), 219-252.

This article examines the chromaticism Liszt employs in many of his compositions, focusing particularly on the change of a single semitone between two neighboring chords. Satyendra argues that this so-called "inflected repetition," a product of the Romantic obsession with expressivity (along with possibly the Greek tetrachord system), should be seen as a key structural element of Liszt's works. By contrast, many theorists have argued that this type of chromaticism is merely a surface detail. Warning: this article is not particularly well-written, and is a bit heavy on the theory jargon (especially in the latter half).

Skoumal, Zdenek. "Liszt's Androgynous Harmony." Music Analysis, 13:1 (March 1994), 51-72.

Liszt's harmonic palatte grew increasingly atonal (or rather post-tonal) over the course of his life. Skoumal discusses this nature of Liszt's music, particularly what he terms "androgynous" dominant chords. Though such a title naturally suggests feminist implications, the author makes none. However, it is easy to read a story into the decline of the "masculine" V-I progression if one wishes. After introducing the concept of an androgynous (or altered) V chord with relation to Liszt's sacred work, the author outlines the differences between androgyny in the major and minor mode, shows how Liszt often constructs "dominant" chords with often all but the leading tone already arrived at the tonic, and points out how Liszt employs such other altered chords as bIII to weaken the sense of tonic. Skoumal then goes into closer analysis of three late piano pieces (for additional possibilities see Orpheus and Hamlet): Nuages gris, La lugubre gondola I, and R. W.- Venezia. He concludes that "the vagueness pervading these late pieces - and the vagueness of androgynous harmony in general - is a direct expression of Romantic ideology, an ideology which values openness and progress above closure and stability."

Strunk, Oliver. Source Readings in Music History: From Classical Antiquity through the Romantic Era. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1950.

Much of Liszt's essay on Berlioz and Harold en Italie is printed on pages 846-873.

Tiersot, Julien. “Liszt in France.” The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 22, 284-94. Oxford University Press, July 1936.

Umstead, Randall. A New Perspective on the Italian Songs of Franz Liszt: an Italian Perspective. PhD diss., University of Cincinnati, 2009.

In his dissertation Umstead discusses how Liszt is currently viewed primarily as a composer who exhibits German traits. Works that fit this German stereotype (i.e. orchestral and piano works) receive the bulk of academic attention. Umstead points out that while this contemporary view is largely valid, Liszt's Italian songs do not fit in the "German" view; there is a strong Italian character to the vocal writing in Liszt's Italian songs similar to the works of bel canto composers. Umstead closes with a comparison of the first and second verses of the Petrarch Sonnets, noting how the revision reflects a change from an Italian character in the first version to a more German character in the revisions.

Walker, Alan. Franz Liszt. New York: Knopf, distributed by Random House. 1983.

Three volumes: v. 1. The virtuoso years, 1811-1847 — v. 2. The weimar years, 1848-1861 — v. 3. The final years 1861-1886.

Walker, Allen, ed. Franz Liszt: The Man and his Music. London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1970. 279-317. (ML410.L7.W28)

Includes a brief character study of Liszt, his role as a pianist and teacher, his influence on 20th century music, and a register of many important persons in Liszt's life. The majority of the book however is a catalog of all of Liszt's compositions which includes dates of composition and publication, major themes, and general characteristics of individual pieces.

Walker, Alan. “Schumann, Liszt and the C Major Fantasie, Op. 17: A Declining Relationship.” In Music and Letters, Vol. 60, April 1979. 156-165.

Bibliography for Liszt and the Feminine

Bloom, Peter. "Communications." In Journal of the American Musicological Society, Vol. 27, 161-2. University of California Press, 1974.

"Caraman." The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. Ed. by George Ripley and Charles A. Dana. Vol. V. New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1859.

Clark, Linda L. Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Cusick, Suzanne G. “Gender, Musicology, and Feminism.” In Rethinking Music, ed. Nicholas Cook and Mark Everist, 471-498. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Fuchs, Rachel Ginnis, and Victoria Elizabeth Thompson. Women in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005.

Kramer, Lawrence. Music as Cultural Practice, 1800-1900. Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1990.

Contains a chapter titled "Liszt, Goethe, and the Discourse of Gender" which is discussed under the feminism tab. It may also be useful to consult his chapter "Musical Form and Fin-de-Siecle Sexuality' for more information of music, sexuality and the nineteenth century.

Lerner, Gerda. The Creation of Patriarchy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Maus, Fred Everett. "Masculine Discourse in Music Theory." Perspectives of New Music 31:2 (Summer 1993), 264-293.

What is the relationship between feminism/gender and music theory? Maus explores the means by which the field of music theory has set itself up as a historically masculine, positivistic entity since the mid-20th century. He continues by examining why this is the case, and how theory (and music in general) may be more feminine than many are willing to admit. Maus closes with the hope that feminism will be accepted into the theoretical world and will help increase the richness and diversity of theoretical discourse. I find the most useful part of this article however, at least for this project, to be the Afterword where Maus treats the input offered by various scholars upon reading his manuscript.

McClary, Susan. “Sexual Politics in Classical Music.” In Feminine Endings, 53-79. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.

Moses, Claire Goldberg. French Feminism in the Nineteenth Century. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984

Ruddy, Susan Ann. The Suffering Female Saint in Nineteenth-Century French Oratorio: Massenet's Marie-Magdalene and Liszt's La Légende de Sainte Elisabeth. PhD diss., Washington University, St. Louis, MO., 2009.

Bibliography for the Faust Symphony

Baumer, Matthew Richard. "Aesthetic theory and the representation of the feminine in orchestral program music of the mid-nineteenth century. PhD diss., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2002.

Examines depictions of female characters through the lens of mid-19th c. criticism, within the context of a reevaluation of the aesthetic history of orchestral program music. Case studies of representations of the feminine illustrate the changes in aesthetic theory and vice verse.

Baumer provides a great discussion of the varied analyses of Gretchen (and her movement in the symphony), as well as offering his own; his formal analysis to be found on p.191 is useful. In his paper Baumer pays special attention to Kramer, Pohl, and Zellner.

Boerner, Peter, and Sidney M. Johnson. Faust Through Four Centuries: Retrospect and Analysis = Vierhundert Jahre Faust : Rückblick Und Analyse. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1989.

Brown, Jane K., Meredith Lee, and Thomas P. Saine. Interpreting Goethe's "Faust" Today. Columbia, SC: Camden House, 1994.

Bucchianeri, E.A.. "Liszt, Goethe, the Faust symphony, and the symphonic poem: 'The word must become the deed.'" A compendium of essays: Purcell, Hogarth and Handel, Beethoven, Liszt, Debussy, and Andrew Lloyd Webber. 1stBooks: Bloomington IN, 2002. 57-81.

Calvocoressi, M.D. "Liszt's 'Faust' Symphony" The Musical Times 66:984, (1925),

An old article from 1925. Author discusses themes and other critic's criticism of Liszt's form in the symphony. Discusses the form in relation to program - defends Liszt (though its too late; he is dead.)

Chrissochoidis, Ilias. "Liszt's Eine Faust-Symphonie and Lawrence Kramer's reading of the 'Gretchen' Movement." JALS 50 (Autumn 2001).

A review essay of Kramer's chapter on Liszt and Faust in Music as cultural practice, 1800-1900 (RILM 1990-567). The primary point of contention regards Kramer's focus on this work in terms of cultural practice which cuts it off from its context as part of a distinguished symphonic tradition.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Goethes Faust. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1800.

Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von, and Bayard Taylor. Faust. New York: Modern library, 1950.

A translation from German to English, with an attempt to keep the original meters.

Golianek, Ryszard Daniel. "The salvation of Faust: The narrative function of the tonal structure in A Faust symphony of Franz Liszt." Contexts of Musicology, Maciej Jabłoński et al., eds. Ars Nova Poznań: Poland, 1997, 107-113.

The tonal structure of the work stresses the psychological value of the problems discussed in Goethe's poem, rather than focusing attention on the dramatic action.

Grim, William E. The Faust Legend in Music and Literature. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press, 1988.

Jensen, Eric Frederick. "Liszt, Nerval, and 'Faust'" 19th-Century Music 6:2 (Autumn, 1982), 151-158.

Discusses Liszt's relationship with librettist Nerval. Discusses how Liszt came to the idea of the symphony, and other artists who worked with the faust legend

Kaplan, Richard and Franz Liszt. "Sonata Form in the Orchestral Works of Liszt: The Revolutionary Reconsidered" // 19th-Century Music// 8:2 (Autumn, 1984), 142-152.

Kramer, Lawrence. "Liszt, Goethe, and the Discourse of Gender" in Music as Cultural Practice, 1800-1900. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990, p.102-134

This essay, which has sparked a tremendous deal of controversy, argues that Liszt effectively marginalizes Gretchen and femininity in general, and that the Faust Symphony's ultimate result is the appropriation of the power of the feminine by the masculine.

Larkin, David. "A tale of two Fausts: An examination of reciprocal influence in the responses of Liszt and Wagner to Goethe's Faust." Music and literature in German romanticism Camden House: Rochester, NY, 2004.

Liszt, Franz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Alan Walker. A Faust symphony: in three character pictures. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover, 2003.

Liszt, Franz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Kenneth Riegel, and Leonard Bernstein. Eine Faust-Symphonie. Hamburg: Deutsche Grammophon, 1996.

Longyear, Rey M. and Kate R. Covington. "Tonal and harmonic structures in Liszt's Faust symphony." Internationales Ferenc Liszt Symposium, Akadémiai Kiadó: Budapest, 1986, 153-171.

The pitches c, e, and a-flat provide the basic underlying tonal plan for Liszt's Faust-Symphonie. C is the tonic of the outer movements whereas e occupies the role traditionally played in sonata form by the dominant in major and the mediant in minor; a-flat is the tonic of the central movement and serves as a prominent organizing pitch in the other movements. These pitches are also reflected in the importance of the major third and the augmented triad throughout the symphony. A detailed structural-tonal analysis of the symphony and a discussion of its motives and their transformations are included.

Monson, Dale E. "Innocence and the argument of Liszt's Faust symphony." JALS 28 (July-December 1990), 20-30.

The Romantic notion of innocence, which stressed the perfection, spontaneous creation, and simple purity of a nonreflective existence, enlivened the art and aesthetics of the late 18th and the 19th c. Goethe's Faust sought fulfillment in knowledge and experience, while Kleist's dancer in Das Marionettentheater found hope that knowledge might return us 'through a back door' to the innocence of Paradise. Liszt's views on the Ewig-weibliches—and its redemption of the corruption of knowledge—are related to contemporary notions of innocence, and play a role in the dramatic and formal design of his Faust-Symphonie.

Nineteenth-Century Music. New York: Garland, 1985.

Ott, Leonard W. "The orchestration of the Faust symphony." JALS 12 (Dec. 1982), 28-37.

A discussion of Franz Liszt's orchestration focusing on the composer's handling of timbre as a feature equal in importance to the other elements of music. Four categories of 'timbral flow' - alternation/exchange, overlapping, expansion/contraction, and stability - are identified in the scoring for winds of the Faust-Symphonie and in Hector Berlioz's Symphonie fantastique. Comparative observations indicate that while the two composers share an attentiveness to the control of timbre they differ in their basic approach to wind instrumentation.

Pohl, Richard. "Franz Liszt. Studien und Erinnerungen."

Scott, Derek B.. "Diabolus in musica: Liszt and the demonic." From the erotic to the demonic: On critical musicology. Oxford University Press: New York, 2003, 128-151.

Presents an overview of Liszt's representation of the demonic, the techniques (including tritones) he used, and the impact on his stylistic development as a composer. Precedents such as the demonic devices in Mozart's Il dissoluto punito ossia il Don Giovanni (act 2, scene 5) and Weber's Der Freischütz (Wolf's Glen) are addressed. Works discussed include the Totentanz, Mephisto Waltz, nos. 1 and 3, Eine Faust-Symphonie, Eine Symphonie zu Dantes Divina Commedia, and Liszt's late works. The relation between Liszt's diabolic techniques and the dissolution of tonality is addressed.

Shulstad, Elizabeth Reeves. "The symbol of genius: Franz Liszt's symphonic poems and symphonies." PhD diss., Florida State University, 2001.

One of the most characteristic developments of the late 18th and early 19th c. was the rise of a new idea of artistic genius. Notions of individuality and human power developing during this time period were explored in literature, poetry, and philosophy. The orchestral works of Liszt that are directly associated with 19th-c. symbols of genius are examined.

Vazsonyi, Nicholas. "Liszt, Goethe, and the Faust Symphony." JALS 40 (July-December 1996), 1-23.

In his Faust-Symphonie Liszt follows Goethe's version of the Faust legend, from the wager with Mephistopheles and the redemptive love of Gretchen to Faust's final struggle before his salvation. Musical motives include the dissonant 12-tone motive representing Faust's inner torment; the diatonic Gretchen motive representing stability and calm; and the motive of pride, leading to the last section in which Mephistopheles jeers and goads Faust. Twenty-one musical examples illustrate, through specific motivic and harmonic analyses, Liszt's programmatic choices in characterizing the three principals. The concluding chorus sets to music the final words of Goethe's Faust, book 2.

Walker, Alan. "Liszt, Goethe, and the 'Faust' symphony." The Romantic tradition: German literature and music in the nineteenth century, Frederick Albert Hall et al., eds. University Press of America: Lanham, MD, 1992, 245-261.

The most important cultural center in Germany during the late 18th and early 19th c., Weimar is associated with Goethe, Schiller, Herder, Wieland, Preller, and Liszt, who lived there from 1848 to 1861 as Kapellmeister-in-Extraordinary. His orchestral masterpiece, Eine Faust-Symphonie, composed in 1854 and first performed in 1857, is an attempt to convey in purely musical terms the personalities of the three protagonists in Goethe's drama. After a half-century of neglect, this symphonic monument of the Romantic period found ardent exponents in Felix Weingartner and Sir Thomas Beecham.

Zamir, Sara. "The study of the principle of the eternal-feminine as an aesthetic declaration in: La damnation de Faust by Hector Berlioz, Eine Faust Symphonie by Franz Liszt, Mefistofele by Arrigo Boito." PhD diss., Bar-Ilan University, Israel, 2005.

Bibliography for Marie d'Agoult

Watson, Paul Barron. Some Women of France. Freeport, NY: Books for Libraries Press, 1936. CT3420.W3

This book, spanning many centuries, offers brief biographies of a number of French women including: Héloïse, Isabeau de Bavière, Madame du Deffand, Madame de Staël, Delphine Gay, Marie d'Agoult, and Juliette Lamber. Written in the style of Tallentyre (a.k.a. Hall), the book seems to be unified by an effort to present some of the powerful political and intellectual figures in French history. As for the chapter on Marie d'Agoult, in addition to listing the main events from the entirety of her life, it reads (I think rather enjoyably) like a psychological narrative; Watson paints a character portrait where Marie's interactions with the men and women in her life are placed in some sort of perspective.

Bibliography for Salons

Chesney, Duncan McCall. "The History of the History of the Salon." Nineteenth-century French studies 36:1 (2007), 94.

Clark, Linda L. Women and Achievement in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Davidson, Denise Z. //France After Revolution: Urban Life, Gender, and the New Social Order. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

Gattey, Charles Neilson. A Bird of Curious Plumage: Princess Cristina Di Belgiojoso, 1808-1871. London: Constable, 1971.

Haine, W. Scott. The World of the Paris Café: Sociability Among the French Working Class, 1789-1914. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996.

Hall, Evelyn Beatrice (S. G. Tallentyre, pseud.) The Women of the Salons and Other French Portraits. New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901. (DC36.2 H25)

This charming work supplies portraits of a number of famous salonnières and other individuals, including: Mme. du Deffand, Mlle. de Lespinasse, Mme. Geoffrin, Mme. d'Épinay, Mme. Necker, Mme. de Staël, Mme. Récamier, Dr. Tronchin, Maria Letizia Ramolino (the mother of Napoleon), Mme. de Sévigné, and Mme. Vigée le Brun. The period writing style (which might disturb certain readers) and use of some likely apocryphal biographical details are counterbalanced by the closeness to the salon period when Hall was writing. If nothing else, this book serves to throw a little bit of light on the nature of the women in charge of the salons.

Kale, Steven. French Salons: High Society and Political Sociability from the Old Regime to the Revolution of 1848. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. (DC33.5 K.35)

Traces the history of the Parisian salon, with a primary focus on the era of revolutions oriented around the turn of the 19th century. As can be expected, Kale is concerned above all with politics, though it is impossible to discuss salons without also spending a good deal of time on feminism and the role of women in early modern France.

Mason, Amelia Ruth Gere. The Women of the French Salons. New York: Century Co., 1891.

Rogers, Rebecca. From the Salon to the Schoolroom: Educating Bourgeois Girls in Nineteenth-Century France. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005.

Starr, Laura B. “Art Furniture in the Paris Salon.” The Decorator and Furnisher 30:4 (1897).

Tunley, David. Salons, Singers, and Songs. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2002.

Weber, William. “Did People Listen in the 18th Century?” Early Music 25:4, 25th Anniversary Issue; Listening Practice (Nov., 1997), 678-691.

Whitehouse, H. Remsen. A Revolutionary Princess: Christina Belgiojoso-Trivulzio, Her Life and Times, 1808-1871. New York: E.P. Dutton, 1906.

Wiser, William. The Twilight Years: Paris in the 1930s. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2000.

Bibliography for 1848

Burrow, J.W.. The Crisis of Reason: European Thought 1848-1914. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000. CB204.B87.2000

Fejtö, François, ed. The Opening of an Era: 1848; an historical symposium. London: A. Wingate, 1948.

Bibliography for Topic Theory

Hatten, Robert S. Beethoven: Markedness, Correlation, and Interpretation. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

The next most important topical study (after Ratner), Hatten takes the idea of topic and expands it into what he terms an "expressive genre." In particular Hatten explores the interrelationship of High/Middle/Low music and Major/Minor modes, constructing charts by which different expressive genres may be located (see chapters 3 & 4). All of this is done with an eye towards Beethoven, and Hatten uses said composer's music to illustrate all of his points. As far as I can tell, the remaining chapters of the book follow similar methods in the attempt to uncover musical meaning. In terms of this course, chapter 9 - From the Aesthetic to the Semiotic - may be of particular utility.

McKay, Nicholas. "On Topics Today." Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft für Musiktheorie, 4:1-2 (2007), 159-183.

This article surveys the state of so-called topic theory today. It charts its development through two generations of "topic theorists." The first is constructed around three influential texts: Leonard Rattner's seminal book that established the discipline in its own right, Classic Music: expression, form, and style; Wye Allanbrook's Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart: Le nozze di Figaro and Don Giovanni, and Kofi Agawu's Playing with signs: a semiotic interpretation of classical music. The second comprises significant advances in topic theory essayed through two further pairs of texts: Robert Hatten's Musical meaning in Beethoven and Interpreting musical gestures, topics, and tropes; and Raymond Monelle's Linguistics and semiotics in music and The sense of music: semiotic essays. (Nicholas McKay's abstract).

Newcomb, Anthony. "Schumann and Late Eighteenth-Century Narrative Strategies." 19th Century Music, 11:2 (Autumn 1987), 164-174.

The author first sets out to describe the idea of using a narratological approach in order to help uncover the musical meaning of a piece. This method is influenced by the works of Barthes, Collingwood, Ricoeur, Gadamer, Chatman, Propp, and Lévi-Strauss, and is concerned with both hermeneutics as well as cultural understanding of assorted paradigms. Newcomb proceeds to emphasize the main points of narratological thinking, demonstrating through an analysis of Schumann's String Quartet in A, op. 41/3 how a composer might begin with a standard musical "story" only to later defy expectations as to where the plot should go.

Newcomb, Anthony. "Once More 'Between Absolute and Program Music': Schumann's Second Symphony." 19th Century Music, 7:3 (April 1984), 233-250.

In this article Newcomb iterates some main points he would later develop in "Schumann and Late Eighteenth-Century Narrative Strategies." By taking a symphony that had historically been adored, yet increasingly in the 20th century was seen as formless, Newcomb demonstrates the need for understanding culturally and temporally dependent patterns of understanding (in particular musical archetypes).

Ratner, Leonard G. Classic Music: Expression, Form, and Style. New York: Schirmer Books, 1980.

This is one of the earliest books on topic theory, and is the starting point for many later analyses. Ratner identifies several topics, largely from the collection of Renaissance/Baroque dance forms (sarabande, gigue, minuet, etc.), though items like the French overture and the Sturm und Drang are also present. The remainer of the book emphasizes other musical elements (mode, rhythm, texture, form etc.) in addition to topics, with the ultimate goal of attempting to explain how composers express concepts in their music.